L-carnitine: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions (2024)

Abbasi, S. H., Heidari, S., Mohammadi, M. R., Tabrizi, M., Ghaleiha, A., and Akhondzadeh, S. Acetyl-L-carnitine as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled trial. Child Psychiatry Hum.Dev. 2011;42(3):367-375. View abstract.

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Abd-Allah, A. R., Helal, G. K., Al-Yahya, A. A., Aleisa, A. M., Al-Rejaie, S. S., and Al-Bakheet, S. A. Pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways which compromise sperm motility and survival may be altered by L-carnitine. Oxid.Med.Cell Longev. 2009;2(2):73-81. View abstract.

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Amen, D. G., Wu, J. C., Taylor, D., and Willeumier, K. Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation. J Psychoactive Drugs 2011;43(1):1-5. View abstract.

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Angelini, C., Federico, A., Reichmann, H., Lombes, A., Chinnery, P., and Turnbull, D. Task force guidelines handbook: EFNS guidelines on diagnosis and management of fatty acid mitochondrial disorders. Eur.J Neurol. 2006;13(9):923-929. View abstract.

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Arnold, L. E., Amato, A., Bozzolo, H., Hollway, J., Cook, A., Ramadan, Y., Crowl, L., Zhang, D., Thompson, S., Testa, G., Kliewer, V., Wigal, T., McBurnett, K., and Manos, M. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multi-site, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Child Adolesc.Psychopharmacol. 2007;17(6):791-802. View abstract.

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Arrigo, A., Casale, R., Buonocore, M., and Ciano, C. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on reaction times in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10(1-2):133-137. View abstract.

Asilsoy, S., Bekem, O., Karaman, O., Uzuner, N., and Kavukcu, S. Serum total and free carnitine levels in children with asthma. World J Pediatr. 2009;5(1):60-62. View abstract.

Augustyniak, A., Stankiewicz, A., and Skrzydlewska, E. The Influence of L-Carnitine on Oxidative Modification of LDL In Vitro. Toxicol.Mech.Methods 2008;18(6):455-462. View abstract.

Auinger, K., Muller, V., Rudiger, A., and Maggiorini, M. Valproic acid intoxication imitating brain death. Am.J Emerg.Med. 2009;27(9):1177-6. View abstract.

Azevedo, O., Vilarinho, L., Almeida, F., Ferreira, F., Guardado, J., Ferreira, M., Lourenco, A., Medeiros, R., and Almeida, J. Cardiomyopathy and kidney disease in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness caused by the 3243A>G mutation of mitochondrial DNA. Cardiology 2010;115(1):71-74. View abstract.

Azumano, I. and Yamanishi, T. A new use of pantothenic acid in metabolic syndrome treatment. Kagaku to Seibutsu 2008;46(6):400-404.

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Baker, S. K. and Lipson, D. M. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in a neonate with congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr.Hematol.Oncol. 2010;32(3):e114-e117. View abstract.

Balasaraswathi, K., Rajasekar, P., and Anuradha, C. V. Changes in redox ratio and protein glycation in precataractous lens from fructose-fed rats: effects of exogenous L-carnitine. Clin Exp.Pharmacol Physiol 2008;35(2):168-173. View abstract.

Balercia, G., Regoli, F., Armeni, T., Koverech, A., Mantero, F., and Boscaro, M. Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil.Steril. 2005;84(3):662-671. View abstract.

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Bangma, H. R., Smit, G. P., Kuks, J. B., Grevink, R. G., and Wolffenbuttel, B. H. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 10-18-2008;152(42):2298-2301. View abstract.

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Baudouin, C., Cochener, B., Pisella, P. J., Girard, B., Pouliquen, P., Cooper, H., and Creuzot-Garcher, C. Randomized, phase III study comparing osmoprotective carboxymethylcellulose with sodium hyaluronate in dry eye disease. Eur.J Ophthalmol. 2012;22(5):751-761. View abstract.

Bavbek, N., Akay, H., Uz, B., Uz, E., Turgut, F., Kanbay, M., Senes, M., Akcay, A., and Duranay, M. The effects of L-carnitine therapy on respiratory function tests in chronic hemodialysis patients. Ren Fail. 2010;32(2):157-161. View abstract.

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Bellinghieri, G., Savica, V., Barbera, C. M., Ricciardi, B., Egitto, M., Torre, F., Valentini, G., D'Iddio, S., Bagiella, E., Mallamace, A., and . L-carnitine and platelet aggregation in uremic patients subjected to hemodialysis. Nephron 1990;55(1):28-32. View abstract.

Bellinghieri, G., Savica, V., Mallamace, A., Di, Stefano C., Consolo, F., Spagnoli, L. G., Villaschi, S., Palmieri, G., Corsi, M., and Maccari, F. Correlation between increased serum and tissue L-carnitine levels and improved muscle symptoms in hemodialyzed patients. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1983;38(4):523-531. View abstract.

Benedini, S., Perseghin, G., Terruzzi, I., Scifo, P., Invernizzi, P. L., Del, Maschio A., Lazzarin, A., and Luzi, L. Effect of L-acetylcarnitine on body composition in HIV-related lipodystrophy. Horm.Metab Res. 2009;41(11):840-845. View abstract.

Benton, D. and Donohoe, R. T. The influence on cognition of the interactions between lecithin, carnitine and carbohydrate. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;175(1):84-91. View abstract.

Bernard, A., Rigault, C., Mazue, F., Le, Borgne F., and Demarquoy, J. L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med.Sci 2008;63(10):1027-1033. View abstract.

Bertoli, M., Battistella, P. A., Vergani, L., Naso, A., Gasparotto, M. L., Romagnoli, G. F., and Angelini, C. Carnitine deficiency induced during hemodialysis and hyperlipidemia: effect of replacement therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(8):1496-1500. View abstract.

Biagini, A., Opie, L., Rovai, D., Mazzei, M. G., Carpeggiani, C., and Maseri, A. Intravenous dl-carnitine fails to increase the double-product during atrial pacing in patients with effort angina. A double-blind randomized study. G Ital Cardiol 1983;13(11):291-294. View abstract.

Bianchi, G., Vitali, G., Caraceni, A., Ravaglia, S., Capri, G., Cundari, S., Zanna, C., and Gianni, L. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of pacl*taxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-l-carnitine. Eur.J Cancer 7-19-2005; View abstract.

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Biolo, G., Stulle, M., Bianco, F., Mengozzi, G., Barazzoni, R., Vasile, A., Panzetta, G., and Guarnieri, G. Insulin action on glucose and protein metabolism during L-carnitine supplementation in maintenance haemodialysis patients. Nephrol.Dial Transplant 2008;23(3):991-997. View abstract.

Bjornsson, E. Hepatotoxicity associated with antiepileptic drugs. Acta Neurol.Scand. 2008;118(5):281-290. View abstract.

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Bloomer, R. J., Farney, T. M., Trepanowski, J. F., McCarthy, C. G., Canale, R. E., and Schilling, B. K. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men. J Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. 2010;7:16. View abstract.

Bloomer, R. J., Tschume, L. C., and Smith, W. A. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. Int.J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2009;79(3):131-141. View abstract.

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Bolognesi, M., Amodio, P., Merkel, C., Godi, L., and Gatta, A. Effect of 8-day therapy with propionyl-L-carnitine on muscular and subcutaneous blood flow of the lower limbs in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clin Physiol 1995;15(5):417-423. View abstract.

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Boneh, A., Beauchamp, M., Humphrey, M., Watkins, J., Peters, H., and Yaplito-Lee, J. Newborn screening for glutaric aciduria type I in Victoria: treatment and outcome. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(3):287-291. View abstract.

Bonilla, Guerrero R., Wolfe, L. A., Payne, N., Tortorelli, S., Matern, D., Rinaldo, P., Gavrilov, D., Melan, M., He, M., Steinberg, S. J., Raymond, G. V., Vockley, J., and Gibson, K. M. Essential fatty acid profiling for routine nutritional assessment unmasks adrenoleukodystrophy in an infant with isovaleric acidaemia. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2008;31 Suppl 2:S453-S456. View abstract.

Borghi-Silva, A., Baldissera, V., Sampaio, L. M., Pires-DiLorenzo, V. A., Jamami, M., Demonte, A., Marchini, J. S., and Costa, D. L-carnitine as an ergogenic aid for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease submitted to whole-body and respiratory muscle training programs. Braz.J Med.Biol.Res. 2006;39(4):465-474. View abstract.

Brass, E. P., Adler, S., Sietsema, K. E., Hiatt, W. R., Orlando, A. M., and Amato, A. Intravenous L-carnitine increases plasma carnitine, reduces fatigue, and may preserve exercise capacity in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37(5):1018-1028. View abstract.

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Brevetti, G., Attisano, T., Perna, S., Rossini, A., Policicchio, A., and Corsi, M. Effect of L-carnitine on the reactive hyperemia in patients affected by peripheral vascular disease: a double-blind, crossover study. Angiology 1989;40(10):857-862. View abstract.

Brevetti, G., di Lisa, F., Perna, S., Menabo, R., Barbato, R., Martone, V. D., and Siliprandi, N. Carnitine-related alterations in patients with intermittent claudication: indication for a focused carnitine therapy. Circulation 5-1-1996;93(9):1685-1689. View abstract.

Broad, E. M., Maughan, R. J., and Galloway S DR. Effects of exercise intensity and altered substrate availability on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in athletes. Int.J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2011;21(5):385-397. View abstract.

Brunel-Guitton, C., Costa, T., Mitchell, G. A., and Lambert, M. Treatment of cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency during pregnancy. J Inherit.Metab Dis 9-10-2010; View abstract.

Cai, H., Yi, W., Li, M., and et al. The effect of levocarnitine for plasmatic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS) on acute cerebral infarct patients. Modern Preventive Med. 2010;37(12):2353-2354.

Cai, T., Wagenlehner, F. M., Mazzoli, S., Meacci, F., Mondaini, N., Nesi, G., Tiscione, D., Malossini, G., and Bartoletti, R. sem*n quality in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent. J Androl 2012;33(4):615-623. View abstract.

Calabrese, V., Colombrita, C., Sultana, R., Scapagnini, G., Calvani, M., Butterfield, D. A., and Stella, A. M. Redox modulation of heat shock protein expression by acetylcarnitine in aging brain: relationship to antioxidant status and mitochondrial function. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2006;8(3-4):404-416. View abstract.

Calabrese, V., Cornelius, C., Mancuso, C., Lentile, R., Stella, A. M., and Butterfield, D. A. Redox homeostasis and cellular stress response in aging and neurodegeneration. Methods Mol.Biol. 2010;610:285-308. View abstract.

Calabrese, V., Cornelius, C., Stella, A. M., and Calabrese, E. J. Cellular stress responses, mitostress and carnitine insufficiencies as critical determinants in aging and neurodegenerative disorders: role of hormesis and vitagenes. Neurochem.Res. 2010;35(12):1880-1915. View abstract.

Calabrese, V., Giuffrida Stella, A. M., Calvani, M., and Butterfield, D. A. Acetylcarnitine and cellular stress response: roles in nutritional redox homeostasis and regulation of longevity genes. J Nutr.Biochem. 2006;17(2):73-88. View abstract.

Calandrella, N., De, Seta C., Scarsella, G., and Risuleo, G. Carnitine reduces the lipoperoxidative damage of the membrane and apoptosis after induction of cell stress in experimental glaucoma. Cell Death.Dis 2010;1:e62. View abstract.

Calo, L. A., Pagnin, E., Davis, P. A., Semplicini, A., Nicolai, R., Calvani, M., and Pessina, A. C. Antioxidant effect of L-carnitine and its short chain esters: relevance for the protection from oxidative stress related cardiovascular damage. Int.J Cardiol. 2-8-2006;107(1):54-60. View abstract.

Cao, Y., Wang, Y. X., Liu, C. J., Wang, L. X., Han, Z. W., and Wang, C. B. Comparison of pharmaco*kinetics of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine after single oral administration of L-carnitine in healthy volunteers. Clin Invest Med. 2009;32(1):E13-E19. View abstract.

Carlsson, M., Forsberg, E., and Thorne, A. Observations during L-carnitine infusion in two long-term critically ill patients. Clin Physiol 1984;4(4):363-365. View abstract.

Carroll, J. K., Kohli, S., Mustian, K. M., Roscoe, J. A., and Morrow, G. R. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer-related fatigue. Oncologist. 2007;12 Suppl 1:43-51. View abstract.

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Caruso U, Leone L Cravotto E Nava D. Effects of L-carnitine on anemia in aged hemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin: A pilot study. Dial Transplant 1998;27:498-506.

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Casciani, C. U., Caruso, U., Cravotto, E., D'Iddio, S., Corsi, M., Pola, P., Savi, L., and Grilli, M. L-carnitine in haemodialysed patients. Changes in lipid pattern. Arzneimittelforschung 1982;32(3):293-297. View abstract.

Cavallini, G., Ferraretti, A. P., Gianaroli, L., Biagiotti, G., and Vitali, G. Cinnoxicam and L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment for idiopathic and varicocele-associated oligoasthenospermia. J Androl 2004;25(5):761-770. View abstract.

Cetinkaya, A., Bulbuloglu, E., Kantarceken, B., Ciralik, H., Kurutas, E. B., Buyukbese, M. A., and Gumusalan, Y. Effects of L-carnitine on oxidant/antioxidant status in acetic acid-induced colitis. Dig.Dis Sci 2006;51(3):488-494. View abstract.

Cha, Y. S., Choi, S. K., Suh, H., Lee, S. N., Cho, D., and Li, K. Effects of carnitine coingested caffeine on carnitine metabolism and endurance capacity in athletes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2001;47(6):378-384. View abstract.

Chan, A., Paskavitz, J., Remington, R., Rasmussen, S., and Shea, T. B. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for early-stage Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year, open-label pilot study with an 16-month caregiver extension. Am.J Alzheimers.Dis Other Demen. 12-20-2008;23(6):571-585. View abstract.

Chan, A., Remington, R., Kotyla, E., Lepore, A., Zemianek, J., and Shea, T. B. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia. J.Nutr.Health Aging 2010;14(3):224-230. View abstract.

Chan, Y. C., Tse, M. L., and Lau, F. L. Two cases of valproic acid poisoning treated with L-carnitine. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2007;26(12):967-969. View abstract.

Chao, H. H., Chen, C. H., Liu, J. C., Lin, J. W., Wong, K. L., and Cheng, T. H. L-Carnitine attenuates angiotensin II-induced proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts: role of NADPH oxidase inhibition and decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate generation. J Nutr.Biochem. 2010;21(7):580-588. View abstract.

Chazot, C., Blanc, C., Hurot, J. M., Charra, B., Jean, G., and Laurent, G. Nutritional effects of carnitine supplementation in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2003;59(1):24-30. View abstract.

Chen, J. C., Tsai, T. C., Liu, C. S., and Lu, C. T. Acute hearing loss in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Acta Neurol.Taiwan. 2007;16(3):168-172. View abstract.

Chen, X. F., Li, Z., Ping, P., Dai, J. C., Zhang, F. B., and Shang, X. J. [Efficacy of natural vitamin E on oligospermia and asthenospermia: a prospective multi-centered randomized controlled study of 106 cases]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue 2012;18(5):428-431. View abstract.

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Corbucci, G. G., Menichetti, A., Cogliatti, A., Nicoli, P., and Ruvolo, C. Metabolic aspects of acute tissue hypoxia during extracorporeal circulation and their modification induced by L-carnitine treatment. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1992;12(3):149-157. View abstract.

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Crill, C. M., Storm, M. C., Christensen, M. L., Hankins, C. T., Bruce, Jenkins M., and Helms, R. A. Carnitine supplementation in premature neonates: effect on plasma and red blood cell total carnitine concentrations, nutrition parameters and morbidity. Clin Nutr. 2006;25(6):886-896. View abstract.

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Cruciani, R. A., Dvorkin, E., Homel, P., Culliney, B., Malamud, S., Shaiova, L., Fleishman, S., Lapin, J., Klein, E., Lesage, P., Portenoy, R., and Esteban-Cruciani, N. L-carnitine supplementation for the treatment of fatigue and depressed mood in cancer patients with carnitine deficiency: a preliminary analysis. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci 2004;1033:168-176. View abstract.

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De Ritis G, Picardo S, Brancadoro D, and et al. The effect of carnitine in patients using artificial pacemakers. Current Therapeutic Research 1989;46(6):1027-1033.

De Simone C, Catania S, Trinchieri V, and et al. Amelioration of the depression of HIV-infected subjects with L-acetyl carnitine therapy. J Drug Dev 1988;1(3):163-166.

De Simone, C., Tzantzoglou, S., Famularo, G., Moretti, S., Paoletti, F., Vullo, V., and Delia, S. High dose L-carnitine improves immunologic and metabolic parameters in AIDS patients. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1993;15(1):1-12. View abstract.

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del Olmo, J. A., Castillo, M., Rodrigo, J. M., Aparisi, L., Serra, M. A., Wassel, A., and Bixquert, M. Effect of L-carnitine upon ammonia tolerance test in cirrhotic patients. Adv Exp Med Biol 1990;272:197-208. View abstract.

Demeyere, R., Lormans, P., Weidler, B., Minten, J., Van Aken, H., and Flameng, W. Cardioprotective effects of carnitine in extensive aortocoronary bypass grafting: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Anesth.Analg. 1990;71(5):520-528. View abstract.

Derosa, G., Cicero, A. F., Gaddi, A., Mugellini, A., Ciccarelli, L., and Fogari, R. The effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther 2003;25(5):1429-1439. View abstract.

Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., Ferrari, I., D'Angelo, A., Fogari, E., Palumbo, I., Randazzo, S., and Cicero, A. F. Comparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patients. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2011;25(5):642-651. View abstract.

Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., Ferrari, I., D'Angelo, A., Fogari, E., Palumbo, I., Randazzo, S., and Cicero, A. F. Orlistat and L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on insulin resistance in obese diabetic patients. Endocr.J 2010;57(9):777-786. View abstract.

Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., Salvadeo, S. A., Ferrari, I., Gravina, A., Mereu, R., D'Angelo, A., Palumbo, I., Randazzo, S., and Cicero, A. F. Effects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients. Metabolism 2011;60(3):421-429. View abstract.

Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., Salvadeo, S. A., Ferrari, I., Gravina, A., Mereu, R., D'Angelo, A., Palumbo, I., Randazzo, S., and Cicero, A. F. Sibutramine and L-carnitine compared to sibutramine alone on insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Intern.Med 2010;49(16):1717-1725. View abstract.

Desbree, A., Houdon, L., Touati, G., Djemili, S., Choker, G., and Flodrops, H. [EBV infection revealing a long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency in a 3-year-old boy]. Arch.Pediatr. 2011;18(1):18-22. View abstract.

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DiMauro, S. and Hirano, M. Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Syndromes. In: Pagon, R. A., Bird, T. D., Dolan, C. R., Stephens, K., and Adam, M. P. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Seattle;1993. View abstract.

Dimitriadis, F., Tsambalas, S., Tsounapi, P., Kawamura, H., Vlachopoulou, E., Haliasos, N., Gratsias, S., Watanabe, T., Saito, M., Miyagawa, I., and Sofikitis, N. Effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors on Leydig cell secretory function in oligoasthenospermic infertile men: a randomized trial. BJU.Int. 2010;106(8):1181-1185. View abstract.

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Dokmeci, D., Inan, M., Basaran, U. N., Yalcin, O., Aydogdu, N., Turan, F. N., and Uz, Y. H. Protective effect of L-carnitine on testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Cell Biochem.Funct. 2007;25(6):611-618. View abstract.

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Duranay, M., Akay, H., Yilmaz, F. M., Senes, M., Tekeli, N., and Yucel, D. Effects of L-carnitine infusions on inflammatory and nutritional markers in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol.Dial Transplant 2006;21(11):3211-3214. View abstract.

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Eidi, M., Pouyan, O., Shahmohammadi, P., Saeidi, H., Bahar, M., and Eidi, A. Effect of L-carnitine supplement on sem*n parameters in men with idiopathic infertility. J.Med.Sci.J.Islamic Azad Univ. 2009;19(1):Pe11-Pe15.

El Beshlawy, A., Abd, El Raouf, Mostafa, F., Talaat, M., Isma'eel, H., Aoun, E., Hoffbrand, A. V., and Taher, A. Diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell anemia: is there a role for L-carnitine treatment? Acta Haematol. 2006;115(1-2):91-96. View abstract.

El Beshlawy, A., Mohtar, G., Abd El, Ghafar E., Abd El Dayem, S. M., El Sayed, M. H., Aly, A. A., and Farok, M. Assessment of puberty in relation to L-carnitine and hormonal replacement therapy in beta-thalassemic patients. J Trop.Pediatr. 2008;54(6):375-381. View abstract.

El-Beshlawy, A., El, Accaoui R., Abd El-Sattar, M., Gamal El-Deen, M. H., Youssry, I., Shaheen, N., Hamdy, M., El-Ghamrawy, M., and Taher, A. Effect of L-carnitine on the physical fitness of thalassemic patients. Ann.Hematol. 2007;86(1):31-34. View abstract.

El-Beshlawy, A., Youssry, I., El-Saidi, S., El, Accaoui R., Mansi, Y., Makhlouf, A., and Taher, A. Pulmonary hypertension in beta-thalassemia major and the role of L-carnitine therapy. Pediatr.Hematol.Oncol. 2008;25(8):734-743. View abstract.

El-Metwally, T. H., Hamed, E. A., Ahmad, A. R., and Mohamed, N. A. Dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction in children with chronic renal failure: effects of L-carnitine supplementation. Ann.Saudi.Med. 2003;23(5):270-277. View abstract.

Ellaway, C. J., Peat, J., Williams, K., Leonard, H., and Christodoulou, J. Medium-term open label trial of L-carnitine in Rett syndrome. Brain Dev. 2001;23 Suppl 1:S85-S89. View abstract.

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Evangelista, M., Koverech, A., Messano, M., and Pescosolido, N. Comparison of three lubricant eye drop solutions in dry eye patients. Optom.Vis.Sci 2011;88(12):1439-1444. View abstract.

Evans, J. D., Jacobs, T. F., and Evans, E. W. Role of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ann.Pharmacother. 2008;42(11):1686-1691. View abstract.

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fa*gher, B., Thysell, H., Nilsson-Ehle, P., Monti, M., Olsson, L., Eriksson, M., Lindstedt, S., and Lindholm, T. The effect of D,L-carnitine supplementation on muscle metabolism, neuropathy, cardiac and hepatic function in hemodialysis patients. A pilot study. Acta Med Scand 1982;212(3):115-120. View abstract.

Famularo, G., Moretti, S., Alesse, E., Trinchieri, V., Angelucci, A., Santini, G., Cifone, G., and De, Simone C. Reduction of glutamate levels in HIV-infected subjects treated with acetylcarnitine. J NeuroAIDS. 1999;2(2):65-73. View abstract.

Fan, J. P., Kim, H. S., and Han, G. D. Induction of apoptosis by L-carnitine through regulation of two main pathways in Hepa1c1c 7 cells. Amino.Acids 2009;36(2):365-372. View abstract.

Faria, C. C., Mota, J. F., Paula Ravagnani, F. C., and Burini, R. C. [The supplementation of L-carnitine does not promote alterations in the resting metabolic rate and in the use of energetic substrates in physically active individuals]. Arq Bras.Endocrinol.Metabol. 2010;54(1):37-44. View abstract.

Fatouros, I. G., Douroudos, I., Panagoutsos, S., Pasadakis, P., Nikolaidis, M. G., Chatzinikolaou, A., Sovatzidis, A., Michailidis, Y., Jamurtas, A. Z., Mandalidis, D., Taxildaris, K., and Vargemezis, V. Effects of L-carnitine on oxidative stress responses in patients with renal disease. Med.Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(10):1809-1818. View abstract.

Feillet, F., Ogier, H., Cheillan, D., Aquaviva, C., Labarthe, F., Baruteau, J., Chabrol, B., de, Lonlay P., Valayanopoulos, V., Garnotel, R., Dobbelaere, D., Briand, G., Jeannesson, E., Vassault, A., and Vianey-Saban, C. [Medium-chain acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: French consensus for neonatal screening, diagnosis, and management]. Arch.Pediatr 2012;19(2):184-193. View abstract.

Feinfeld, D. A., Kurian, P., Cheng, J. T., Dilimetin, G., Arriola, M. R., Ward, L., Manis, T., and Carvounis, C. P. Effect of oral L-carnitine on serum myoglobin in hemodialysis patients. Ren Fail. 1996;18(1):91-96. View abstract.

Fenkci, S. M., Fenkci, V., Oztekin, O., Rota, S., and Karagenc, N. Serum total L-carnitine levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum.Reprod. 2008;23(7):1602-1606. View abstract.

Fernandez, C. and Proto, C. [L-carnitine in the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia. An analysis of 3 multicenter studies and a bibliographic review]. Clin Ter. 1992;140(4):353-377. View abstract.

Ferrari R, Cucchini F, Dilisa F, and et al. The effect of L-carnitine (carnitene) on myocardial metabolism of patients with coronary artery disease. Clin Trial J 1984;21:40-58.

Fietta, P. and Manganelli, P. Carnitine: a therapeutic option for childhood psoriatic onycho-pachydermo-periostitis (POPP). Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26(1):93-94. View abstract.

Filipek, P. A., Juranek, J., Nguyen, M. T., Cummings, C., and Gargus, J. J. Relative carnitine deficiency in autism. J Autism Dev.Disord. 2004;34(6):615-623. View abstract.

Foitzik, K., Hoting, E., Heinrich, U., Tronnier, H., and Paus, R. Indications that topical L-carnitin-L-tartrate promotes human hair growth in vivo. J Dermatol.Sci 2007;48(2):141-144. View abstract.

Footitt, E. J., Stafford, J., Dixon, M., Burch, M., Jakobs, C., Salomons, G. S., and Cleary, M. A. Use of a long-chain triglyceride-restricted/medium-chain triglyceride-supplemented diet in a case of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency with cardiomyopathy. J Inherit.Metab Dis 6-15-2010; View abstract.

Fornasini, G., Upton, R. N., and Evans, A. M. A pharmaco*kinetic model for L-carnitine in patients receiving haemodialysis. Br.J Clin Pharmacol 2007;64(3):335-345. View abstract.

Fortin, G., Yurchenko, K., Collette, C., Rubio, M., Villani, A. C., Bitton, A., Sarfati, M., and Franchimont, D. L-carnitine, a diet component and organic cation transporter OCTN ligand, displays immunosuppressive properties and abrogates intestinal inflammation. Clin Exp.Immunol. 2009;156(1):161-171. View abstract.

Fujiwara, M., Nakano, T., Tamoto, S., Yamada, Y., f*ckai, M., Takada, K., Ashida, H., Shimada, T., Ishihara, T., and Seki, I. [Effect of L-carnitine in patients with ischemic heart disease]. J Cardiol 1991;21(2):493-504. View abstract.

Fulgente T, Onofrj M Del Re ML et al. Laevo-acetylcarnitine (Nicetile registered) treatment of senile depression. Clin Trials J 1990;27:155-163.

Galvano, F., Li, Volti G., Malaguarnera, M., Avitabile, T., Antic, T., Vacante, M., and Malaguarnera, M. Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2009;10(12):1875-1882. View abstract.

Ganio, M. S., Klau, J. F., Lee, E. C., Yeargin, S. W., McDermott, B. P., Buyckx, M., Maresh, C. M., and Armstrong, L. E. Effect of various carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids on cycling performance and maximal voluntary contraction. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2010;20(2):104-114. View abstract.

Gecele M, Francesetti G, and Meluzzi A. Acetyl-L-carnitine in aged subjects with major depression: clinical efficacy and effects on the circadian rhythm of cortisol. Dementia 1991;2(6):333-337.

Geier, D. A., Kern, J. K., Davis, G., King, P. G., Adams, J. B., Young, J. L., and Geier, M. R. A prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial of levocarnitine to treat autism spectrum disorders. Med.Sci Monit. 2011;17(6):I15-I23. View abstract.

Genazzani, A. D., Lanzoni, C., Ricchieri, F., Santagni, S., Rattighieri, E., Chierchia, E., Monteleone, P., and Jasonni, V. M. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) administration positively affects reproductive axis in hypogonadotropic women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. J Endocrinol.Invest 2011;34(4):287-291. View abstract.

Genger, H., Enzelsberger, H., and Salzer, H. [Carnitine in therapy of placental insufficiency--initial experiences]. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1988;192(4):155-157. View abstract.

Gentile, V., Antonini, G., Antonella, Bertozzi M., Dinelli, N., Rizzo, C., Ashraf, Virmani M., and Koverech, A. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(9):2223-2228. View abstract.

Gesuete, V., Ragni, L., and Picchio, F. M. [The "big heart" of carnitine]. G.Ital.Cardiol.(Rome) 2010;11(9):703-705. View abstract.

Giamberardino, M. A., Dragani, L., Valente, R., di Lisa, F., Saggini, R., and Vecchiet, L. Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. Int J Sports Med 1996;17(5):320-324. View abstract.

Giammusso B, Morgia G, Spampinato A, and et al. Improved pallesthetic sensitivity of pudendal nerve in impotent diabetic patients treated with acetyl-L-carnitine. Acta Urol Ital 1996;10(3):185-187.

Gibault, J. P., Frey, A., Guiraud, M., Schirardin, H., Bouletreau, P., and Bach, A. C. Effects of L-carnitine infusion on intralipid clearance and utilization. Study carried out in septic patients of an intensive care unit. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1988;12(1):29-34. View abstract.

Goetz, C. G., Tanner, C. M., Cohen, J. A., Thelen, J. A., Carroll, V. S., Klawans, H. L., and Fariello, R. G. L-acetyl-carnitine in Huntington's disease: double-blind placebo controlled crossover study of drug effects on movement disorder and dementia. Mov Disord. 1990;5(3):263-265. View abstract.

Goldenberg, N. A., Krantz, M. J., and Hiatt, W. R. L-Carnitine plus cilostazol versus cilostazol alone for the treatment of claudication in patients with peripheral artery disease: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Vasc.Med 2012;17(3):145-154. View abstract.

Golper, T. A., Wolfson, M., Ahmad, S., Hirschberg, R., Kurtin, P., Katz, L. A., Nicora, R., Ashbrook, D., and Kopple, J. D. Multicenter trial of L-carnitine in maintenance hemodialysis patients. I. Carnitine concentrations and lipid effects. Kidney Int 1990;38(5):904-911. View abstract.

Gonzalez-Ortiz, M., Hernandez-Gonzalez, S. O., Hernandez-Salazar, E., and Martinez-Abundis, E. Effect of oral L-carnitine administration on insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2008;52(4):335-338. View abstract.

Gorostiaga, E. M., Maurer, C. A., and Eclache, J. P. Decrease in respiratory quotient during exercise following L-carnitine supplementation. Int J Sports Med 1989;10(3):169-174. View abstract.

Gramignano, G., Lusso, M. R., Madeddu, C., Massa, E., Serpe, R., Deiana, L., Lamonica, G., Dessi, M., Spiga, C., Astara, G., Maccio, A., and Mantovani, G. Efficacy of l-carnitine administration on fatigue, nutritional status, oxidative stress, and related quality of life in 12 advanced cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy. Nutrition 2006;22(2):136-145. View abstract.

Grandis, D. D. Tolerability and efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine in patients with peripheral neuropathies: a short-term, open multicentre study. Clin Drug Investig. 1998;15(2):73-79. View abstract.

Graziano F, Renato B, Catalano V, and et al. Potential role of levocarnitine supplementation for treatment of chemotherapy-induced fatigue in non-anemic cancer patients. (pre-publication author's copy, via correspondence) 2002;1-14.

Greco, A. V., Mingrone, G., Bianchi, M., and Ghirlanda, G. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetic angiopathy: controlled double blind trial versus placebo. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1992;18(2):69-80. View abstract.

Greig, C., Finch, K. M., Jones, D. A., Cooper, M., Sargeant, A. J., and Forte, C. A. The effect of oral supplementation with L-carnitine on maximum and submaximum exercise capacity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup.Physiol 1987;56(4):457-460. View abstract.

Guan, Y., Zheng, X. M., Yang, Z. W., and Li, S. W. [Protective effects of L-carnitine upon testicular ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 7-14-2009;89(26):1858-1861. View abstract.

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Guevara-Campos, J., Gonzalez-Guevara, L., Parada, Y., and Urbaez-Cano, J. [Infantile encephalopathy associated with the MELAS A3243G mutation. Case report]. Invest Clin 2007;48(2):243-248. View abstract.

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Helms, R. A., Whitington, P. F., Mauer, E. C., Catarau, E. M., Christensen, M. L., and Borum, P. R. Enhanced lipid utilization in infants receiving oral L-carnitine during long-term parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr 1986;109(6):984-988. View abstract.

Heringer, J., Boy, S. P., Ensenauer, R., Assmann, B., Zschocke, J., Harting, I., Lucke, T., Maier, E. M., Muhlhausen, C., Haege, G., Hoffmann, G. F., Burgard, P., and Kolker, S. Use of guidelines improves the neurological outcome in glutaric aciduria type I. Ann.Neurol. 2010;68(5):743-752. View abstract.

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Hiatt, W. R., Creager, M. A., Amato, A., and Brass, E. P. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on a background of monitored exercise in patients with claudication secondary to peripheral artery disease. J Cardiopulm.Rehabil.Prev. 2011;31(2):125-132. View abstract.

Hlais, S., Reslan, D. R., Sarieddine, H. K., Nasreddine, L., Taan, G., Azar, S., and Obeid, O. A. Effect of lysine, vitamin B(6), and carnitine supplementation on the lipid profile of male patients with hypertriglyceridemia: a 12-week, open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther 2012;34(8):1674-1682. View abstract.

Ho, J. Y., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Fragala, M. S., Thomas, G. A., Dunn-Lewis, C., Coday, M., Hakkinen, K., and Maresh, C. M. l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism 2010;59(8):1190-1199. View abstract.

Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Gonzalez, A., Beller, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Olson, M., Purpura, M., and Jager, R. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. 2010;7:39. View abstract.

Holzhauer, P. Casuistry: medical nutrition intervention with specific micronutrient and exercise therapy in pancreatic cancer. Zeitschrift für Orthom*olekulare Medizin 2009;7(3):22-24.

Hooshmand, S., Balakrishnan, A., Clark, R. M., Owen, K. Q., Koo, S. I., and Arjmandi, B. H. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(8):595-601. View abstract.

Horvath, G. A., Davidson, A. G., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. G., Lillquist, Y. P., Waters, P. J., Olpin, S., Andresen, B. S., Palaty, J., Nelson, J., and Vallance, H. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency: experience of the first three years in British Columbia, Canada. Can.J Public Health 2008;99(4):276-280. View abstract.

Hsieh, C. T., Hwu, W. L., Huang, Y. T., Huang, A. C., Wang, S. F., Hu, M. H., and Chien, Y. H. Early detection of glutaric aciduria type I by newborn screening in Taiwan. J Formos.Med.Assoc. 2008;107(2):139-144. View abstract.

Huang, W. W., Wang, M. Y., Shi, H. M., Peng, Y., Peng, C. S., Zhang, M., Li, Y., Lu, J., and Li, X. B. Comparative study of bioactive constituents in crude and processed Glycyrrhizae radix and their respective metabolic profiles in gastrointestinal tract in vitro by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI/MS analyses. Arch.Pharm Res 2012;35(11):1945-1952. View abstract.

Huang, Y., Huang, L. C., and Zhan, F. Clinical analysis of therapeutic effect of levocarnitine on dialysis patients. China Tropical Med 2007;7(5):753-754.

Huidekoper, H. H., Schneider, J., Westphal, T., Vaz, F. M., Duran, M., and Wijburg, F. A. Prolonged moderate-intensity exercise without and with L-carnitine supplementation in patients with MCAD deficiency. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2006;29(5):631-636. View abstract.

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Jacobs, P. L., Goldstein, E. R., Blackburn, W., Orem, I., and Hughes, J. J. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. J Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. 2009;6:9. View abstract.

Janiri, L., Martinotti, G., Tonioni, F., Ghelardini, C., Nicolai, R., Galeotti, N., Mosconi, L., Calvani, M., Bartolini, A., and Iannoni, E. Acetyl-L-carnitine in the management of pain during methadone withdrawal syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009;32(1):35-40. View abstract.

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Jing, L., Zhou, L. J., Li, W. M., Zhang, F. M., Yuan, L., Li, S., Song, J., and Sang, Y. Carnitine regulates myocardial metabolism by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Med.Sci Monit. 2011;17(1):BR1-BR9. View abstract.

Jirillo, E., Altamura, M., Munno, I., Pellegrino, N. M., Sabato, R., Di Fabio, S., and De Simone, C. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration on lymphocyte antibacterial activity and TNF-alpha levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. A randomized double blind versus placebo study. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1991;13(1-2):135-146. View abstract.

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Kamikawa, T., Suzuki, Y., Kobayashi, A., Hayashi, H., Masumura, Y., Nishihara, K., Abe, M., and Yamazaki, N. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris. Jpn Heart J 1984;25(4):587-597. View abstract.

Kang, H. C., Kim, H. D., Lee, Y. M., and Han, S. H. Landau-Kleffner syndrome with mitochondrial respiratory chain-complex I deficiency. Pediatr.Neurol. 2006;35(2):158-161. View abstract.

Karahan, M., co*kseym, B., and Arts, S. The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on 1500 m running performance. Ovidius University Annals, Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health Series 2010;10(Suppl 2):504-507.

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Karimi, M., Mohammadi, F., Behmanesh, F., Samani, S. M., Borzouee, M., Amoozgar, H., and Haghpanah, S. Effect of combination therapy of hydroxyurea with l-carnitine and magnesium chloride on hematologic parameters and cardiac function of patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. Eur.J Haematol. 1-1-2010;84(1):52-58. View abstract.

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Kavukcu, S., Turkmen, M., Salman, S., Onvural, B., Oktay, G., Karaman, O., and Cevik, N. T. The effects of L-carnitine on respiratory function tests in children undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Turk.J Pediatr 1998;40(1):79-84. View abstract.

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Kolker, S., Christensen, E., Leonard, J. V., Greenberg, C. R., Burlina, A. B., Burlina, A. P., Dixon, M., Duran, M., Goodman, S. I., Koeller, D. M., Muller, E., Naughten, E. R., Neumaier-Probst, E., Okun, J. G., Kyllerman, M., Surtees, R. A., Wilcken, B., Hoffmann, G. F., and Burgard, P. Guideline for the diagnosis and management of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type I). J Inherit.Metab Dis 2007;30(1):5-22. View abstract.

Kolker, S., Garbade, S. F., Greenberg, C. R., Leonard, J. V., Saudubray, J. M., Ribes, A., Kalkanoglu, H. S., Lund, A. M., Merinero, B., Wajner, M., Troncoso, M., Williams, M., Walter, J. H., Campistol, J., Marti-Herrero, M., Caswill, M., Burlina, A. B., Lagler, F., Maier, E. M., Schwahn, B., Tokatli, A., Dursun, A., Coskun, T., Chalmers, R. A., Koeller, D. M., Zschocke, J., Christensen, E., Burgard, P., and Hoffmann, G. F. Natural history, outcome, and treatment efficacy in children and adults with glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatr.Res. 2006;59(6):840-847. View abstract.

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Kraft, M., Kraft, K., Gartner, S., Mayerle, J., Simon, P., Weber, E., Schutte, K., Stieler, J., Koula-Jenik, H., Holzhauer, P., Grober, U., Engel, G., Muller, C., Feng, Y. S., Aghdassi, A., Nitsche, C., Malfertheiner, P., Patrzyk, M., Kohlmann, T., and Lerch, M. M. L-Carnitine-supplementation in advanced pancreatic cancer (CARPAN)--a randomized multicentre trial. Nutr J 2012;11:52. View abstract.

Kumar, A., Singh, R. B., Saxena, M., Niaz, M. A., Josh, S. R., Chattopadhyay, P., Mechirova, V., Pella, D., and Fedacko, J. Effect of carni Q-gel (ubiquinol and carnitine) on cytokines in patients with heart failure in the Tishcon study. Acta Cardiol. 2007;62(4):349-354. View abstract.

Kumar, R., Gautam, G., and Gupta, N. P. Drug therapy for idiopathic male infertility: rationale versus evidence. J Urol. 2006;176(4 Pt 1):1307-1312. View abstract.

La, Vignera S., Condorelli, R., Vicari, E., D'Agata, R., and Calogero, A. E. Endothelial antioxidant compound prolonged the endothelial antiapoptotic effects registered after tadalafil treatment in patients with arterial erectile dysfunction. J Androl 2012;33(2):170-175. View abstract.

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Lagioia, R., Scrutinio, D., Mangini, S. G., Ricci, A., Mastropasqua, F., Valentini, G., Ramunni, G., Totaro, Fila G., and Rizzon, P. Propionil-L-carnitine: a new compound in the metabolic approach to the treatment of effort angina. Int J Cardiol 1992;34(2):167-172. View abstract.

Lango, R., Smolenski, R. T., Rogowski, J., Siebert, J., Wujtewicz, M., Slominska, E. M., Lysiak-Szydlowska, W., and Yacoub, M. H. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves hemodynamics and metabolic markers of cardiac perfusion during coronary surgery in diabetic patients. Cardiovasc.Drugs Ther 2005;19(4):267-275. View abstract.

Larsson, L. E., Olegard, R., Ljung, B. M., Niklasson, A., Rubensson, A., and Cederblad, G. Parenteral nutrition in preterm neonates with and without carnitine supplementation. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 1990;34(6):501-505. View abstract.

Le Tourneau, C., Faivre, S., Ciruelos, E., Dominguez, M. J., Lopez-Martin, J. A., Izquierdo, M. A., Jimeno, J., and Raymond, E. Reports of clinical benefit of plitidepsin (Aplidine), a new marine-derived anticancer agent, in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am.J Clin Oncol. 2010;33(2):132-136. View abstract.

Lee, M. S., Lee, H. J., Lee, H. S., and Kim, Y. L-carnitine stimulates lipolysis via induction of the lipolytic gene expression and suppression of the adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Med.Food 2006;9(4):468-473. View abstract.

Lee, N. C., Tang, N. L., Chien, Y. H., Chen, C. A., Lin, S. J., Chiu, P. C., Huang, A. C., and Hwu, W. L. Diagnoses of newborns and mothers with carnitine uptake defects through newborn screening. Mol.Genet.Metab 2010;100(1):46-50. View abstract.

Lee, P. J., Harrison, E. L., Jones, M. G., Jones, S., Leonard, J. V., and Chalmers, R. A. L-carnitine and exercise tolerance in medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: a pilot study. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2005;28(2):141-152. View abstract.

Lenzi, A., Lombardo, F., Sgro, P., Salacone, P., Caponecchia, L., Dondero, F., and Gandini, L. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertil.Steril. 2003;79(2):292-300. View abstract.

Li, B., Lloyd, M. L., Gudjonsson, H., Shug, A. L., and Olsen, W. A. The effect of enteral carnitine administration in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(4):838-845. View abstract.

Li, Z., Chen, G. W., Shang, X. J., Bai, W. J., Han, Y. F., Chen, B., Teng, X. M., Meng, F. H., Zhang, B., Chen, D. N., Liu, J. H., Zheng, X. M., Cao, X. R., Liu, Y., Zhu, X. B., and Wang, Y. X. A controlled randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in men with oligoasthenozoospermia. Nat.J.Andro.(Chinese) 2005;11:761-764.

Li, Z., Gu, R. H., Liu, Y., Xiang, Z. Q., Cao, X. R., Han, Y. F., Zhang, X. S., and Wang, Y. X. Curative effect of L-carnitine supplementation in the treatment of male infertility. Academic J.Shanghai Second Med.Univ. 2005;25:292-294.

Liammongkolkul, S., Kuptanon, C., Wasant, P., Vatanavicharn, N., Sawangareetrakul, P., Keeratichamroen, S., Cairns, J. R. K., Srisomsap, C., and Svasti, J. Novel mutation of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase gene in a Thai infant with methylmalonic acidemia (mut0). Siriraj Med.J. 2009;61(4):215-217.

Liang, W. C., Ohkuma, A., Hayashi, Y. K., Lopez, L. C., Hirano, M., Nonaka, I., Noguchi, S., Chen, L. H., Jong, Y. J., and Nishino, I. ETFDH mutations, CoQ10 levels, and respiratory chain activities in patients with riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Neuromuscul.Disord. 2009;19(3):212-216. View abstract.

Lim, C. Y., Jun, D. W., Jang, S. S., Cho, W. K., Chae, J. D., and Jun, J. H. Effects of carnitine on peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number and liver function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2010;55(6):384-389. View abstract.

Liu, S., Wu, H. J., Zhang, Z. Q., Chen, Q., Liu, B., Wu, J. P., and Zhu, L. L-carnitine ameliorates cancer cachexia in mice by regulating the expression and activity of carnitine palmityl transferase. Cancer Biol.Ther 7-15-2011;12(2):125-130. View abstract.

Loffredo, L., Marcoccia, A., Pignatelli, P., Andreozzi, P., Borgia, M. C., Cangemi, R., Chiarotti, F., and Violi, F. Oxidative-stress-mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Eur.Heart J 2007;28(5):608-612. View abstract.

Loffredo, L., Pignatelli, P., Cangemi, R., Andreozzi, P., Panico, M. A., Meloni, V., and Violi, F. Imbalance between nitric oxide generation and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral arterial disease: effect of an antioxidant treatment. J Vasc.Surg. 2006;44(3):525-530. View abstract.

Loumbakis P, Anezinis P, Evangeliou A, and et al. Effect of L-carnitine in patients with asthenospermia. Eur J Urol 1996;30(Suppl 2):954.

Lu, S. M., Li, X., Zhang, H. B., Hu, J. M., Yan, J. H., Liu, J. L., and Chen, Z. J. [Use of L-carnitine before percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration-intracytoplasmic sperm injection for obstructive azoospermia]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2010;16(10):919-921. View abstract.

Lund, A. M., Joensen, F., Hougaard, D. M., Jensen, L. K., Christensen, E., Christensen, M., Norgaard-Petersen, B., Schwartz, M., and Skovby, F. Carnitine transporter and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiencies in The Faroe Islands. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2007;30(3):341-349. View abstract.

Lynch, K. E., Feldman, H. I., Berlin, J. A., Flory, J., Rowan, C. G., and Brunelli, S. M. Effects of L-carnitine on dialysis-related hypotension and muscle cramps: a meta-analysis. Am.J Kidney Dis 2008;52(5):962-971. View abstract.

Ma, S. J., Cai, W. W., and Sheng, J. The effects of anti-anxiety and depression therapy on life quality of patient with coronary heart disease. Chinese J.Clin.Healthcare 2008;11(5):478-480.

Ma, Y. Y., Song, J. Q., Wu, T. F., Liu, Y. P., Xiao, J. X., Jiang, Y. W., and Yang, Y. L. [Leucodystrophy induced by late onset 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2011;13(5):392-395. View abstract.

Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Gramignano, G., Mulas, C., Floris, C., Sanna, E., Cau, M. C., Panzone, F., and Mantovani, G. A randomized phase III clinical trial of a combined treatment for cachexia in patients with gynecological cancers: evaluating the impact on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and quality of life. Gynecol.Oncol 2012;124(3):417-425. View abstract.

Madeddu, C., Dessi, M., Panzone, F., Serpe, R., Antoni, G., Cau, M. C., Montaldo, L., Mela, Q., Mura, M., Astara, G., Tanca, F. M., Maccio, A., and Mantovani, G. Randomized phase III clinical trial of a combined treatment with carnitine + celecoxib +/- megestrol acetate for patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Clin Nutr 2012;31(2):176-182. View abstract.

Maebashi, M., Kawamura, N., Sato, M., Imamura, A., and Yoshinaga, K. Lipid-lowering effect of carnitine in patients with type-IV hyperlipoproteinaemia. Lancet 10-14-1978;2(8094):805-807. View abstract.

Maestri, A., De Pasquale, Ceratti A., Cundari, S., Zanna, C., Cortesi, E., and Crino, L. A pilot study on the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in pacl*taxel- and cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Tumori 2005;91(2):135-138. View abstract.

Maggi GC, Lomanto B, and Mazzola, C. Double-blind multicenter clinical trial on the efficacy of phosphocreatinine vs L-carnitine and placebo in a group of patients affected by heart disease. Acta Toxicol Ther 1990;11(2):173-184.

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Malaguarnera, M., Bella, R., Vacante, M., Giordano, M., Malaguarnera, G., Gargante, M. P., Motta, M., Mistretta, A., Rampello, L., and Pennisi, G. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces depression and improves quality of life in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(6):750-759. View abstract.

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Spiering, B. A., Kraemer, W. J., Hatfield, D. L., Vingren, J. L., Fragala, M. S., Ho, J. Y., Thomas, G. A., Hakkinen, K., and Volek, J. S. Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on muscle oxygenation responses to resistance exercise. J Strength.Cond.Res. 2008;22(4):1130-1135. View abstract.

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Tarighat, Esfanjani A., Mahdavi, R., Ebrahimi, Mameghani M., Talebi, M., Nikniaz, Z., and Safaiyan, A. The effects of magnesium, L-carnitine, and concurrent magnesium-L-carnitine supplementation in migraine prophylaxis. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2012;150(1-3):42-48. View abstract.

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L-carnitine: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions (2024)
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